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  • Writer's pictureMark Lane

History of the Israel- Palestinian conflict

The attacks upon Israel have increased as the Islamic month of Ramadan continues, with the most significant attack being from Lebanon 2006 from Hezbollah terrorists. Hamas has increased its rocket attacks from Gaza as Palestinians gather in and around Al-Aqsa Mosque. Palestinians have been recorded locking themselves inside the Mosque, launching fireworks, and throwing stones at Israeli security personnel. There has also been an uptick in shootings like the shooting and murder of the Dee family and the 2022 Beersheba mass stabbing attack. Increase in Stabbing attacks have also increased against Israeli citizens and soldiers alike. Terrorist groups like Hezbollah, Hamas, Palestine Islamic Jihad, and others have called for a ‘general mobilization’ against Israel, proclaiming the ‘Third Intifada’ has begun. One must know the background of the conflict and the groups that oppose Israel and many questions must be answered before one can make an effective discussion These questions will be attempted to be answered, if not in rich detail, then in a way I hope people might be able to understand.

In 1918, the British took control of Egypt, Israel, Jordan, and Iraq from the Ottoman Empire which was in its deaththrows; the Balfour Declaration instituted the British Mandate for Palestine, including present-day Israel and Jordan. At the time, it was composed of no more than 1 million people, of which around 10% were Jewish. With the Increase of Jewish Immigration, the Jews bought land from Arab land owners at ten times the lands worth in some places. Working the land, the Jews turned what used to be a barren wasteland into what many described as a paradise; this increased Arab immigration as well. However, when the British began giving fundamental civil rights to the Arab population something that the Arabs had been lacking for the previous Ottoman Empire, they began demanding that no Jews ever be allowed in. Arab leader Aref Dajani says:

“It is impossible to live with the Jews. In all the countries where they are at present, they are not wanted because they always arrive to suck the blood out of everybody… If the League of Nations does not listen, then this land will become a river of blood”.

This was exemplified in April 1920, Arabs entered Jerusalem shouting, “We will drink the blood of the Jews,” after Arab leaders whipped the crowd into what would be called the Nebi Musa riots. The riots lasted three days, resulting in 6 Jews dead and over 200 wounded. The British created the Emirates of Transjordan (Now the Kingdom of Jordan) out of fear of the Arabs; then the British banned all Jews from living in the newly divided territory. The Grand Mufti of Jerusalem Amin al-Husseini, the highest Sunni religious figure in Jerusalem and one of the leaders of the Nebi Musa riots was stonchly against the return of the Jews to mandated palestine and would instigate violence against the Jews. The Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, Amin al-Husseini, continuously launched attacks against the Jews living in modern-day Israel. This caused so much unrest that Lord Peel was sent to determine what could be done to help settle the unrest. Zionist leader Chaim Weizmann begged the British that they would take any land, even if it were ‘As large as a table cloth.’ Finally, in 1937 an offer was put forward of modern-day Israel. Only 20% was offered to the Jews, with the other 80% to an Arab State. While the Zionist Jews accepted this offer, the Arab population did not and revolt against the British

The Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, Amin al-Husseini, was forced into exile, where he was first in Iraq for several years where he oversaw the slaughter of thousands of Jews in Iraq called the Farqud. The Grand Mufti then was forced out of Iraq to Fascist Italy, because Britain feared Iraq would fall to pro-Axis rule. From Fascist Italy, the Mufti traveled to Nazi Germany, where He met Hitler.In 1942, The Mufti attended the Wannsee Conference where the final solution and the Holocaust were decided on. With the fall of Nazi Germany, the Mufti fled to Switzerland before finding himself in French custody, where he was released to live in exile in newly independent Egypt. During the Nuremberg Trials, Dieter Wisliceny, one of Adolf Eichmann’s right-hand men, testified, stating:

“The Mufti was one of the initiators of the systematic extermination of European Jewry...and had been the permanent collaborator and advisor of Eichmann and Himmler in the execution of the plan. According to my opinion, the Grand Mufti, who had been in Berlin since 1941, played a role in the decision of the German government to exterminate the European Jews. He had repeatedly suggested to the various authorities...the extermination of European Jewry. He was one of Eichmann’s best friends and had constantly incited him to accelerate the extermination measures.”

During the Muftis’ time in Egypt, he was a leading member of the Palestinian National Council. He would also bring Arabs like Yasser Arafat and Mahmoud Abbas into the organization,and support them as members and leaders of Fatah and the Palestine Liberation Organization. The modern state of Israel was founded on May 14th, 1948, when the Israeli government, under Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion, declared independence from the British Empire under the British mandate.Because of this, the surrounding Muslim countries invaded Iserai. Before this war began, President of the Arab League Azzam Pasha stated, “a war of extermination and a momentous massacre which will be spoken of like the Mongolian massacres and the Crusades." The Arab League were very confidant in a quick and easy victory but the Jews in their new state of Israel would not make it easy.

For ten months, the Israelis fought for their right to exist. They had hoped their Arab neighbors would accept the UNs patrician plan and the State of Israel and the Arab nation that would have formed alongside them would have peaceful coexistence Now they faced more than 65,000 Arab fighters professionally trained by the British Army, while they numbered roughly 29,000 most of them were either farmers or Holocaust survivors the day prior. Hundreds of thousands of Arab Palestinians had evacuated their homes before hostilities began, being told they would be able to loot the homes and businesses of the dead Jews in a month or two., the new state of Israel held off the Arab armies when a ceasefire was called by the UN, ending the fighting, but a hot peace would take over. The end of the war saw 6,400 Israelis and around 20,000 Arabs killed. Judea and Samara, which was renamed to the West Bank by the Jordians, was annexed by Jordan; The Gaza Strip was annexed by Egypt. Both nations never attempted to form an independent Arab government inside those territories even though, the UN Partition plan, declared these areas were supposed to be for the Arab nation that was to be birthed alongside Israel. Around 700,000 Arabs living in the region of Palestine were displaced from fighting or had left their homes willingly at request of the Arab leaders to make it easier to locate the Jewish people living in the community. They became refugees with the UN-created United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA), which has declared all Palestinian Arabs and their descendants' refugees perpetually. At the same time, countries like Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Iraq, Egypt, Yemen/Aden, Syria, Lebanon, Bahrain, Sudan, Iran, and Turkey expelled approximately 900,000 Jews living in their ancestral homes. While Israel took in the Jews from these nations and integrated them into the country, the same cannot be said for the Palestinian Arabs, who, to this day, have not been given citizenship in the nation they reside and have been forbidden fundamental rights of the country that hosts them. These nations fear the instability that would occur if a massive influx of refugees instantly became citizens. While Israel calls the war ‘The War of Israeli Independence,’ Arabs call the war the nakba or catastrophe since the Arabs were trying to eradicate the Jewish people yet, this failed.

A hot peace existed between Israel and her Arab neighbors, where occasional raids would occur but not open warfare. However, by 1967 tensions between Israel and the Arab World were at a breaking point. In a speech a month before the Six-Day war, Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser stated, “We shall not enter Palestine with its soil covered in sand; we shall enter it with its soil saturated in blood.” Several weeks later, Egypt closed the Straits of Tiran to Israeli shipping, expelled UN peacekeeping forces from the Sinai Peninsula, and brought the Egyptian military into the Sinai. President Nasser claimed that Israel was about to strike Syria faulty intelligence given by the Soviet Union. On June 4th, 1967, the Israeli cabinet met to decide if they should launch a pre-emptive strike on Egypt, and they concluded to launch it the next day. On June 5th, around 188 of Israel’s 200 combat aircraft were launched toward Egypt and destroyed 338 aircraft annihilating the Egyptian Air Force. Israel had around 70,000 soldiers and 700 Tanks spread between three divisions facing seven Egyptian divisions of approximately 100,000 to 160,000 soldiers; A third of them were veterans of the civil war in Yemen and around 1,000 tanks.

On the first day, Israel would capture the Gaza Strip and a portion of the Sinai peninsula, finishing with the capture of Abu-Ageila. After this capture, Egyptian Field Marshal Abdel Hakim Amer ordered a full retreat from the Sinai peninsula which resulted in large-scale casualties among the Egyptian armies. Egypt, Humiliated by their defeat and wanting to appear strong they, lied to the Jordanians and Syrians that they had crushed the Israelis and it was time for them to attack. Israel then turned around and defeat, an Iraqi expeditionary force and a Saudi Arabian force. A ceasefire was called on the 10th of June, just six days after the beginning of the war, and saw between 9,000 and 15,000 Egyptians killed, with over 4,000 captured and saw around 3,000 killed from Jordan, Syria, Iraq, and Saudi Arabia.

The war saw the State of Israel nearly triple in size; it saw the liberation of Judea and Samara (West Bank) from Jordan, the Conquest of the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt, and the Golan Heights from Syria. Israel taking the lands of Judea and Samara (West Bank) has been controversial as the area under the UN patrician plan of 1948 was supposed to go to the Arab State that was meant to be formed under the program. People who support the State of Israel additionally point out that Judea and Samara (West Bank) and the Gaza Strip were under Jordanian and Egyptian control for almost 20 years without attempting to form an Arab or a Palestinian state during that time frame. Others point to the Arabs rejection of the original 1947 partition plan thus no Arab state existed to begin with. Others will also point out the fact that Terrorist groups like Fatah, Palestine Liberation Orginization (PLO), and others in their manifestos and charters never recognized an Arab or Palestinian state inside Judea and Samara (West Bank) or the Gaza Strip until Israel gained control over those lands as well as calling for open genocide against the Jews.

The Six-Day War also led to the War of attrition, and the three Nos of Khartoum, where the Arab League met at Khartoum, Sudan, Proclaimed to the world, No Peace, No Recognition, and No Negotiations with Israel. The cease-fire brokered by the UN between Israel and the Arab world did not mean complete peace. A low-level conflict dubbed the war of attrition broke out between 1967 and 1970. This conflict was an attempt to remove the Isreali Defense Force (IDF) from the Sinai peninsula by destroying its equipment. The conflict ended in Operation Rimo 20, where Israeli and Soviet fighter pilots engaged and fought each other. By 1973 Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser had died of old age, and Anwar El Sadat became the new Egyptian President. Sadat who was a former military officer came up with a strategy to retake the Suez and Sinai Penninsula, but he would need the Syrians for help. In Syria, Hafez Al-Assad took power in a coup that the Al-Assad family has yet to relinquish. Egypt, Syria, and other Arab nations agreed upon an attack to retake territory lost in 1967. Due to complacency, overconfidence, and lack of intelligence, Israel was hit by a surprise attack on October 6th, 1973, when Egyptian tanks crossed the Suez Canal, and Syria struck the Golan Heights. The attack began on Yom Kippur; Yom Kippur is the holiest day of Judaism, described as the sabbath of sabbaths, where The Jewish people fast, pray, and confess their sins to God. Because of this, many Israelis did not have any electronics on; subsequently, many Israelis learned they were at war when the air raid sirens went off across the country.

Since it was Yom Kippur, Much of the IDF was not at full strength, leaving much of the fortifications weaker than they should have been when the Arab artillery began to fire. The Israelis believed it would take 24 to 48 hours to cross the Suez and breach the defenses the Israelis had emplaced; the Egyptians managed to do it in ten and erected ten separate pontoon bridges. The Egyptians had Soviet-made Anti-Air missiles and Anti-tank guided missiles (ATGM) and effectively advanced and set up a defensive line and waited for a UN ceasefire they knew would occur. The Israelis sent their Modified M4 Shermans, M50, and other ground forces to the defensive line but were repulsed by the ATGMs while their Air Force could not counter the anti-air missiles. As the Egyptian-Israeli frontlines stabilized, the Israelis turned to deal with a more pressing matter on the north side of the country, the Golan Heights against Syria.

The Syrian Army used the weakened IDF presence in the Golan to make rapid advancements where they nearly achieved their goal of removing the Israelis from the Heights, spearheaded by state-of-the-art T-62 Main battle tanks. The Syria push culminated in the four-day-long Battle of the Valley of Tears, in which the 7th Armored brigade of 100 Israeli tanks faced a force of a reported 1,400 Soviet-made tanks, which nearly saw the destruction of the 7th Armored brigade and was saved by Israeli reinforcements. However, the Syrian’s spearhead was broken; they had lost the initiative, were put on the defensive, and were pushed out of the Golan almost as quickly as they had advanced; Moroccan and Iraqi reinforcements were insufficient to prevent the IDF’s advance. The IDF advanced until the Syrian capital, Damascus, was within range of their artillery. The Syrian president was threatened by a possible Israeli advance into Damascus and called upon the Egyptians to attack the Israelis in hopes that pressure would be taken off the Syrian military. The course of the war hung in the balance, in which only a hand full of people could tip the scales.

President Sadat ordered the Egyptian military to attack the Israeli positions leaving the protection of the Anti-air missiles and the ATGMs, hoping the coming battle would not be too costly. The battle of the Sinai saw the T-55 and Israeli M50s engage in one of the most significant tank battles in history, seeing around 1,800 tanks in total, and ended with the Israelis obliterating the Egyptian tank force and moving to the rear of the Egyptian lines destroying their Anti-Air sites and crossed the Suez using the Egyptian pontoon bridges and encircled the Egyptian army as well as getting within 60 miles of Cairo, the Egyptian capital. Sadat asked for a cease-fire and began negotiations with a nation he had refused to recognize, but slowly the tentative peace between Israel and Egypt grew.

First, a formal peace treaty was signed between Egypt and Israel, which then saw President Sadat enter the Israeli Knesset in 1977. Then in 1979, Egypt normalized relations with Israel by opening its Embassy in Tel Aviv. President Sadat would, unfortunately, be unable to enjoy the peace he had helped create. In October of 1981, he was assassinated by Arabs who hated the fact that he had made peace with Israel. Next, in 1994 Jordan joined Egypt in full recognition of the State of Israel, and the two would remain the only Arab nations to do so until 2020.

Lebanon is a nation to the north of Israel which, between 1918 and 1943, was ruled by the French, who had to work with the multiple Arab factions living in the area. The French had to deal with Maronite Christians, The Druze, Sunni Arabs, and Shia Arab Factions, and the French had to balance these factions’ to prevent revolts. The French assisted these factions in building a government and ruling the nation of Lebanon, where the Maronites took the Presidency, Sunnis took the Prime Minister position, Shia took the parliament speaker, and Druze took the head of the military. They also determined that the Parliament would have a required quota for each faction. In 1970, terror groups like Fatah and the PLO had been kicked out of Jordan and were sent to Lebanon after an incident in September that would be called ‘Black September’. The PLO and Fatah then relocated to the 12 refugee camps in Lebanon and began to expand control over the surrounding area in Lebanon and led to an increase in ethnic tensions in Lebanon.

In 1975, Palestinians committed a drive-by shooting against Maronite Christians, killing four in Ain el-Rummaneh, east of Beirut. In response, Maronite groups ambushed Palestinian members of the Arab Liberation Front as they traveled through Ain el-Rummaneh, killing 30 of them. This incident was declared the beginning of the 15 years long civil war in Lebanon. The civil war saw the disintegration of the Lebanese government, where militias and factions broke out based on their religious, class, and ethnic divides, and Syria entered the war-stricken nation. Al-Assad wanted to influence and control Lebanon and possibly incorporate it into Syria, adding another faction to the Lebanese civil war. By 1982 Palestinians had control of southern Lebanon and continued to attack Israeli forces with the protection of Syrian troops. In 1977 Menachem Begin, the leader of the Israeli right-wing Likud Party, came to power for the first time in Israeli history. After continued strikes, even though they were promised attacks would end, Israel invaded Lebanon on June 6th, 1982, to destroy Palestinian artillery and weaken the Palestinian military forces. However, the Israeli government wished to avoid harming civilians during the invasion, something the Palestinians quickly took advantage of, taking hostages and firing at the IDF from behind civilians. These actions of hostage-taking and using them as human shields led made the invasion slow to a crawl in some places and led to more Israeli casualties than otherwise would have occurred.

The Invasion culminated in the Israelis and their Christian allies surrounding and besieging Beirut with Negotiation attempts between the Israelis, US, Soviets, Syrians, Lebanese, and Palestinians. The Lebanese president-elect Bashir Gemayel wished all non-Lebanese groups could leave the country. But the non-Lebanese groups all refused to leave for various reasons. During this time, the Palestinians who would claim to wish to leave would then launch attacks against Israel breaking cease-fire agreements and thus delaying negotiations. Finally, after several setbacks and assassinations of Lebanese leadership by Syrian agents and other issues, the US convinced Israel and others to bring US Marines to assist in returning security and governance to the Lebanese government and get the withdrawal of other foreign armies. Meanwhile, Hezbollah was created in 1982 after a split in the Shia factions, and they received full support and backing from the Iranian government. Hezbollah would be one of the first terrorist organizations to introduce suicide bombings to the world, first bombing an IDF command post in Lebanon, then in the same style against the US Embassy and the US Marine Barracks in Beirut. By 1983 the Israelis began to withdraw from central Lebanon and into Southern Lebanon. By 1985 the IDF was out of Lebanon, and by 1990 the Lebanese civil war had ended.

The Arab-Palestinians living in Gaza, Judea, and Samara (West Bank), and in what people recognize as Israel proper during the 1980s, saw an increase in their standard of living and Palestinians being able to attend higher education. But at the same time, Palestinian violence against Jews and Israelis increased. The increase of poorer Palestinians with Radical and militant views in the educational system led to them being able to spread their ideas further than they would otherwise have. With a sizeable unemployed group of Palestinians and the rise of Leftist Israeli groups, the Palestinians believed the time had come to demonstrate against Israel and watch as the leftist political groups of Israel bow to their demands. As a result, riots and terrorist attacks increased, overflowing into the first Intifada on December 8th, 1987, when Arab-Palestinians claimed a traffic accident involving an Israeli truck driver and Palestinians in Gaza was on purpose. Protests, strikes, and general rioting took place, but because these incidents were not planned, the PLO could not take control of the movement.

Thus, the initial protests and other activities were relatively peaceful, with rocks and Molotov cocktails thrown at Israeli civilians and security forces; taking advantage of the situation, PLO and other terrorist groups like Hamas were able to take control of the Intifada, and the violence grew. The PLO and other groups started to coordinate bombings, shootings, and stabbings and increase in rioting. The Intifada ended in 1993 because the Palestinian economy was in ruins. After all, for most of the Intifada, Palestinians were not at work. The six-year-long conflict resulted in around 1,600 Palestinian deaths, though it must be noted that the numbers do not divide Palestinians carrying out attacks and those who were innocent. It also should be noted that approximately 900 Palestinians were murdered by others in their community for allegedly “Collaborating” with Israelis, and around Palestinians killed 200 Israelis, while approximately 4000 were injured. The Israeli government was painted as evil and the Palestinians as innocent in the media, even though the situation on the ground differed from what was reported. However, some truth can be given to the statement that the Israeli government and military were unprepared for the level and type of violence that occurred and thus responded poorly. Until 1987, the IDF and Israeli governments usually dealt with uniformed armies, not terrorists. Now, they had to learn a new form of warfare, where the lines between fighter and civilian blurred. The first Intifada also resulted in the PLO and Yasser Arafat being seen as newly moderated peace partners. Even though, in 1982, Israel had to invade Lebanon to prevent the PLO from performing terrorist and rocket attacks against Israel. Thus in 1993, Yasser Arafat plucked from obscurity in exile in Tunisia, signed the first round of the Oslo Accords in Washington DC, then entered Israel to create the Palestinian Authority (PA) to govern over certain areas in Gaza and Judea and Samara (West Bank).

When the Oslo Accords were signed, there was an intention that the Israelis and Arabs would have continuing negotiations, so in 1993 was Oslo 1 in Washington D.C., and in 1995 was Oslo 2 in Egypt. This saw the Israeli government turn over governing control to the Cities of Gaza, Jenin, Tulkarem, Kalkilya, Nablus, Ramallah, and Bethlehem, with other cities and territories to be handed over at a later date. In July 2000, Oslo 3 would occur at Camp David in the United States between Ehud Barak and Yasser Arafat. The two-week-long negotiations would see Ehud Barak offering essentially all of Judea and Samara, excluding several areas where it was majority Jewish, all of Gaza, and the ability to have the old city of Jerusalem as the symbolic capital of what would become the Palestinian states in which Yasser Arafat rejected the proposal effectively destroying the negotiations Arafat also secretly ended plans to declare Palestinian independence indefinitely.

The political right of Israel was happy since they did not believe they should sacrifice their historic homelands for peace. At the same time, Palestinians blamed Israel, which led Arafat to bring Fatah, the military arm of the PLO/PA, to work with Hamas and Palestine Islamic Jihad (PIJ). On September 28, 2000, the opposition party leader against Ehud Barak, Ariel Sharon, and the future Prime minister of Israel took a tour of the Temple Mount, which held the Dome of the Rock and the Al-Aqsa Mosque. Israeli interior minister Shlomo Ben-Ami contacted the Palestinian Authority security chief Jibril Rajoub who told the Israeli minister that if Ariel Sharon did not enter either mosque, there would be no issue, so the tour was allowed. It should be noted that Jibril Rajoub and all Palestinian leadership deny they granted permission Attempting to portray Sharon’s visit as some kind of invasion. Upon Sharon leaving the Temple Mount, it was reported that the Warf Commander began shouting on a megaphone, telling Palestinians to “Defend Al-Aqsa,” leading to a riot with Palestinians throwing rocks at praying Jews at the western wall. The riots resulted in 25 Israeli police officers being injured and three Palestinians also being injured by rubber bullets.

The next day, Palestinians returned to the Temple Mount, began to riot for a second time, and once again threw rocks at the Jews praying below at the western wall. Israeli Police responded again to the riot, but when a rock struck the Jerusalem Police chief, and he fell unconscious, the riot police switched to live ammunition, which resulted in 7 dead and 300 wounded at the end of the day and 70 Israeli police officers wounded. The first five days saw 47 Palestinians dead and almost 1,800 wounded in clashes with Israeli police. The Palestinians blame Intifada’s start on Ariel Sharon and say that Israeli settlements were also a continuing issue preventing peace. It seemed like the Palestinians expected the Israelis to follow their side of the agreement even though Palestinian leadership continuously failed to uphold their side of them and came to believe diplomacy had failed and thus turned to violence, using the Temple Mount visit as an excuse.

On September 30th, a Gunfight between Palestinians and IDF erupted, catching 12-year-old Muhammad al-Durrah and his father in the crossfire. This Incident was recorded by a Palestinian cameraman who freelanced for France 2 and showed the boy and his father huddled behind a stone outcropping. When gunfire erupts, the camera goes out of focus and cuts for several seconds before showing the boy dead, and the father wounded, with the cameraman claiming the boy was killed by the IDF. This video soon fell under criticism when it was discovered there had been selective edits to the video, independent Investigations concluded that the likelihood that an Israeli bullet was low and which side fired the killing shots would not be known, But the boy was declared a Martyr anyway, and the Intifada continued.

Several days later, two Israeli reservists took a wrong turn and ended up in Ramallah. In this Palestinian-controlled city, they were arrested by Palestinian police and taken to their Police station. A mob of around 1,000 Palestinians showed up in front of the station, demanding to be given to the Israelis so they could murder them. After the Palestinian Police officers refused, the mob stormed the Police station, injuring the Palestinian officers, lynched the two Israelis, then covered their hands in the blood of the two, mutilating the bodies and hanging them in the city center to the celebration of the Palestinians. Violence picked up the following year in June as a Hamas Suicide bomber perpetrated the Dolphinarium discotheque massacre killing 21 people, including 16 teenagers, with further celebrations from the Palestinians as they continued to target young Jews and Israelis.

The attacks continued and increased in frequency until Operation Defensive Shield when the Israelis retook cities from Palestinian control since the Palestinian Authority was either unable or unwilling to prevent terrorist activity from being planned and executed. Defensive Shield saw a decrease in terrorist activity by 70%, but Terrorism was still an issue. In June 2002, Israel began to build a security barrier to prevent Palestinian terrorists from entering Israeli areas and committing acts of terror. By 2003 the number of suicide bombings had decreased from 70 in 2002 to 12 in 2003. From studies to the numbers to the words of Terrorist groups, the Barrier had worked.

Ramadan Abdullah, Leader of Palestine Islamic Jihad in 2008, is quoted as saying during an Interview with a Qatari Newspaper, “We do not deny that it [The barrier] limits the ability of the resistance to arrive deep within Israel to carry out suicide bombing attacks.”

Palestinians attempted to claim that massacres had occurred, but international investigations found no massacre occurred during Operation Defensive Shield. The second intifada drove most if not all, Israelis into the right-wing camp regarding foreign policy and interacting with the Palestinians. It removed any Israeli’s desire to offer land for peace again since they felt doing so only led to terrorism.

In 2005, after most hostilities from the Second Intifada ended, Prime Minister Ariel Sharon unilaterally decided to hand the entire Gaza Strip over to the complete Palestinian Authority control. Ariel Sharon no longer thought it was within Israel's interest to patrol and administer the area of the Gaza Strip, and the possibility of peace may occur; the Israelis living there and elsewhere did not like the decision of the Israeli government. Operation Yad l'Achim took place after the Israeli government’s approval and saw the removal of 21 Israeli settlements in the Gaza Strip, which began in August of 2005 and was completed in September of the same year. The Palestinians were given the homes of the evacuated Israelis and between 500 and 1,000 acres of greenhouses as well as roads and other infrastructure with plans for a commercial seaport and repairing the airport in Gaza. Some residents and business owners had to be bought out by the Economic Cooperation Foundation, a Jewish organization, and given to the Palestinians. Initially, there would be four border crossings, with plans to expand the number of crossings. After the Full pullout of Israelis from the Gaza Strip, Palestinians elected Hamas, an internationally designated terror organization, as their representative in the Gaza Strip and has continued to oversee the Gaza Strip. As well as Hamas attacking other factions that could threaten their rule over Gaza, Palestinians rioted, looted, and destroyed the greenhouses and any homes and infrastructure the Israelis built. They also began launching large-scale rocket attacks organized by Hamas against Israeli civilian targets, reaching around 48 rocket attacks a month. This and a tunnel attack by Hamas agents that left two IDF soldiers dead, three wounded, and one captured led to the 2006 Gaza war, the first war in Gaza.

Operation Summer Rains began on June 28, 2006, and lasted four months. The IDF was unable to locate and rescue the captured IDF soldier during the operation but was able to destroy many Qassam rockets and their launchers. The Qassam Rockets were homemade rockets built by Hamas and are still in use with different models, ranges, and payloads. Israel secured the release of the IDF soldier in October 2011 in exchange for approximately 1,100 Palestinian terrorists who were held prisoner by Israel for Terrorism and other violent acts. The number of Border crossings decreased after the violence to just two, one at Erez Crossing in North Gaza and one at Kerem Shalom Crossing with Egypt.

In 1982 a Shia terrorist group named Hezbollah formed and, with the support of the new Iranian government, rose in power and influence. In 1992 Hassan Nasrallah became the leader of Hezbollah; he launched attacks against Israel, from targeting Jewish and Israeli civilian targets mainly outside the Middle East to attacking Israelis inside Israel.

The breaking point came in July of 2006 when Hezbollah members ambushed two Israeli HMWWVs with ATGMs while a rocket attack provided cover. Hezbollah killed three IDF soldiers and took two hostages. The IDF soldiers were either murdered or were left to die of their wounds from the ambush by the Hezbollah fighters. A Merkava 4 Main battle tank arrived at the ambush site and took off to locate and rescue the two captured IDF soldiers. Sadly, the tank was hit with a massive IED causing a catastrophic kill against the tank, killing all four crew members. The Bodies of the first two casualties were recovered in 2008 in a prisoner swap with Hezbollah.

This led to the IDF invading southern Lebanon to track down and disrupt Hezbollah’s activity; by IDF reports, the fighting against Hezbollah was fierce due to their supply of Iranian-made weapons, equipment, and their use of tunnels. The UN passing resolution 1701 declared a ceasefire ending hostilities in mid-August of 2006, in which many Israelis felt they could not complete the objectives laid out to them. The war saw 121 Israeli and between 250 to 600 Hezbollah fighter deaths. The 2006 Lebanon war is not seen in a favorable light by the Israeli citizenry believing not enough was done to either remove Hezbollah or protect Israeli citizens or soldiers.

The Gaza Strip became de-facto independent from Israeli control in 2005 and saw the election of a terrorist group, Hamas, in early 2006, launching attacks against Israel since then. Between 2005 and 2008, the Gaza Strip received 1.6 billion dollars in aid, though most Humanitarian groups question where the assistance has gone. Some have pointed to the constant supply of Qassam rockets and tunnels used to cross into Israel undetected as well as Hamas leadership’s high standards of living as three locations the aid has gone. Since Operation Summer Rains ended in 2006, a constant low-level conflict has occurred between Hamas and Israel, with them building tunnels called “Terror Tunnels” and rocket attacks. In mid-2008, a six-month-long ceasefire was declared between Israel and Hamas with Egypt’s assistance from June 2008 to November 2008.

The ceasefire agreement stipulated that Hamas and other Terror groups in Gaza would not fire rocket attacks or build tunnels into Israel. At the same time, Israel would not launch military incursions and would begin lifting restrictions on certain goods such as steel and concrete and increasing the number of border crossings. Still, Israel did warn Hamas that if they found any Tunnels leading into Israel that they would destroy them. By November 4th, 2008, Israel detected a Terror tunnel and thus conducted an operation to enter and destroy the tunnel entrance. During the operation, a firefight between IDF and Hamas forces broke out, killing one Hamas fighter, but the tunnel was destroyed. Hamas responded by launching mortar and rocket attacks against Israeli civilians, in which the IDF launched airstrikes against the launch sites killing a further 5 Hamas fighters. Between the November 4th operation and the start of Operation Cast Lead on December 27th, 2008, approximately 200 rockets and mortars were fired at Israeli cities.

On the 27th of December, a three-week-long Operation took place to destroy Terror tunnels and remove Hamas Launch sites. The IDF located weapons, rockets, and other military equipment in schools, hospitals, Mosques, and storage tunnels. Hamas continued to launch rocket attacks and engaged with IDF forces during the operation. Hamas began to take civilians hostage and have them huddle around launch sites and other military positions, justifying the actions by stating, “All Palestinians in Gaza are combatants.” By the end of the third week, the IDF declared a unilateral ceasefire and began withdrawing from Gaza as their objectives had been met. Later some figures in the West criticized Israel’s November operation as an unjustified raid, and that ‘building tunnels did not break the ceasefire but destroying the tunnel did’

There were also allegations of mass murder perpetrated by the IDF. Still, no one was able to verify the allegations in any creditable way. One of the accusations from a non-government organization (NGO) claimed that 26 anonymous soldiers reported that IDF units were firing indiscriminately, launching white phosphorous over crowds of civilians, and using Gazan civilians and shields. This caused an investigation into the allegations noted a lack of descriptions of time, place, and the NGO refused to cooperate or bring the soldiers forward to give testimony. It was found that only a hand full of soldiers engaged in criminal acts; one was arrested and convicted for looting, while two others were arrested and sentenced for making Gazan civilians enter a home before they did, and the two soldiers were arrested immediately.

An opinion made by Retired U.S. Army colonel Douglas Macgregor states,

'the IDF went in heavily armed and with a ton of firepower, but they were very selective of where that firepower ended up.’

The Colonel’s sentiment was shared by Colonel Richard Kemp, former head of British forces in Afghanistan, stating,

‘No other army has taken such pain and effort to protect civilian lives in the history of warfare.’

Speaking with IDF soldiers, the Israeli government requires the soldiers first to qualify to carry their firearms but then requires them to take classes and be tested on the rule of engagement every six months and can not go handle a weapon without passing these classes and tests. Accusations of white phosphorous use as a munition against civilian targets were thrown around, but the IDF denied the use of the substance as a munition and only used it in smoke shells fired to mask IDF soldier’s movements, a claim supported by former Irish Defense Force Lt. Col. Raymond Lane stated in front of a UN panel to investigate the accusation. Around 1,200 Palestinians were killed in the fighting, between 491 and 700 of whom were fighters, while 295 and 900 civilians were killed in the fighting. This operation crippled Hamas’s ability to launch large-scale attacks on Israel for some time afterward.

The situation between Israel and Hamas, that also developed in Gaza, had remained calm after the 2008 Operation Cast Lead success diminished Hamas’s ability to launch rocket attacks against Israel. Yet, Hamas continued to smuggle through tunnels and by sea, slowly rebuilding their stockpile of mortars and rockets and importing Iranian-made Fajr-5 rockets. In 2011 Hamas launched 680 missiles into Israel; in 2012, before November 2012, Hamas launched 797 Rockets into Israel. Because Israel suspected most of the rocket and other material used in terrorist activity was being smuggled by sea leading to an increase in the IDF navy stopping and searching fishing vessels coming in and out of the Port of Gaza, where they discovered weapons and ammunition, dual-use equipment and material, dual-use meaning it could be used in either civilian or military use.

Over on the Egyptian side with Gaza, they were finding much of the same. At the same time, between 2005 and 2012, the Gaza Strip saw approximately 4.6 billion dollars in international aid flow into the area, still with little to show for the civilian population. In the several days before November 14, 2012, Hamas increased rocket and mortar attacks again Israeli civilians, causing injuries and property damage. On November 13th, Hamas launched the most rockets they had in 24 hours since 2008, with 121 rockets fired into Israel, sparking Operation Pillar defense to begin on November 14th, which saw Hamas military head Ahmed Jabari killed in an air strike by Israel as well as stuck 20 rocket storage sites crippling Hamas’s long-range rocket capabilities. Reports indicate that between 10 and 14 Palestinians were killed on the 14th, a majority from a Hamas rocket landing short inside a Gaza neighborhood that killed a six-month-old baby. On the morning of the 15th, five Israelis were killed in rocket attacks again in a civilian apartment building and injured 13 others, one an 11-month-old baby. Other rockets struck an elementary school that had not begun classes yet.

Israel placed all Israeli communities within a 15-second strike distance of rocket attacks on lockdown and canceled all schools’ courses within a 60-second strike distance; the IDF also dropped leaflets across the Gaza Strip telling all Palestinian civilians to keep distance from any area with Hamas facilities or personal in it. The IDF continued launching air strikes taking out more rocket sites and storage tunnels. By November 21st, a ceasefire was declared, and the operation was called off; during the 7-day-long operation, more than 1456 rockets were fired toward Israel, killing six and wounding 240. On the Palestinian side, approximately 120 Hamas fighters were killed; anywhere from 50 to 100 civilians were killed, while Hamas executed 8 for alleged collaboration. The operation again crippled Hamas’s ability to launch rockets and other attacks against Israel. The agreed upon by both sides was that no attacks of any kind were to occur and no weapons would enter Gaza, as well as other stipulations—nearly an hour after the ceasefire was signed, Hamas launched 11 rockets into Israel, which all landed outside of civilian population centers. The next day one Palestinian was killed and 19 wounded after a group of Palestinians attempted to climb Israel’s security wall; the Palestinians who were interviewed reported they were farmers who believed the ceasefire allowed them to do what they had done and that they wished to pray on top of the wall. Issues arose when it was found that a video of a wounded man recorded by BBC, Reuters, and CNN being carried away by Palestinians was seen again walking around perfectly fine. Other issues in media coverage came from matters of anti-Israel bias painting Hamas as victims instead of the terrorist group they are recognized as internationally. In contrast, others claimed the media was taking its talking points from the Jews. Other issues of pictures of massacres in Syria and other middle eastern nations were used by Hamas to claim the photos were from Gaza.

In the West Bank, three Israeli teenagers were kidnapped by Hamas members on June 12th, 2014, sparking Operation Brother's Keeper. On June 30th, the bodies of the three teenagers were found in an open field just north of Hebron; they had been executed shortly after their kidnapping. Palestinians from Hebron came out and attempted to force an ambulance carrying the bodies of the three teenagers to crash as it made its way to Jerusalem to take the bodies and the ambulance crew hostage. Throughout the 18-day search, the IDF arrested 350 suspects and locked up the entire active cell of Hamas operating in Judea and Samara (West Bank). On July 2nd, a Palestinian teenager was kidnapped and murdered by three Israeli teenagers; the Israeli Police quickly found and arrested the three suspects, whom their families and community have disowned and now are serving life sentences for their crimes. After the Bodies of the three Israeli teenagers were discovered, Hamas began launching the most significant number of rockets into Israel since 2012; Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu called up reservists from the IDF and started Operation Protective Edge.

Like the previous operations, the operation was designed to destroy Hamas’s military capacity to fire rockets into Israel and destroy terror tunnels going into Israel. The process began on July 8th, 2014, with artillery and air strikes against Hamas targets destroying rocket sites and storage locations, to which Hamas responded with increased Rocket attacks. On the 14th, Egypt and Palestinian president Mahmoud Abbas proposed a ceasefire in Gaza, which Israel accepted and Hamas rejected and continued launching rockets. The day before ground operations would take place, Hamas and Palestine Islamic Jihad offered a 10-year-long ceasefire which had ten demands majority was the removal of the restrictions on goods going into Gaza and lifting a blockade as well as the release of terrorists who had been released in a prior prisoner exchange but were subsequently re-arrested committing terrorist acts. The demands of the Israelis were ridiculous and dangerous, and they did not take the offer. During ground operations, Palestine Islamic Jihad leader Salah Abu Hassanein was killed and began urban fighting in Shuja'iyya. On August 1st, a ceasefire was declared but was quickly broken by Hamas launching a suicide attack against an Israeli, killing two and taking one hostage; the hostage was then executed around 09:20 Israeli time while the body was recovered by IDF later in the day.

Hamas claimed that the IDF broke the ceasefire first at 08:30 when the IDF destroyed Terror tunnels leading from Gaza to Israel; It should be noted that the entrances of these tunnels were well within the IDF area of control before the cease-fire took place. On August 3rd, the IDF pulled out of Gaza after destroying 32 tunnels leading into Israel. On the 5th, the IDF announced the arrest of Hossam Kawasmeh, who financed, supplied, and recruited the Hamas members in Judea and Samara (West Bank) who murdered the three teenagers. On the 21st, three top Hamas commanders were killed in an Israeli airstrike, and between the 22nd and 26th, over 700 rockets were launched at Israel at 1600 hours; on the 26th, a ceasefire was declared between Israel and Hamas. During the operation, Hamas Launched 4,564 Rockets at Israel, causing 6 Israeli deaths and several hundred injuries. On the Palestinian’s side, approximately 2,200 were killed, while the number of civilians is disputed; according to Hamas, 70% of those killed were civilians, while Israel states that 30% were civilians; the UN reports that 50% were civilians. Hamas also executed 23 civilians believing they were collaborators, killing civilians at random. Hamas was also accused of using civilians as human shields and schools, hospitals, mosques, high-population areas, and UN buildings as military positions to launch rockets and attack IDF ground forces.

Jerusalem is the capital of the modern-day state of Israel; during the Israeli War of Independence in 1948, Israel was divided between Israel and the Kingdom of Jordan. The newly formed United Nations had attempted to have Jerusalem declared an international zone, By 1967, after the Six-Day War, Israel took control of Jerusalem, Samara, and Judea (West Bank) from Jordan, thus unifying the divided city. For a mixture of reasons, Before 2018, No Country opened or kept its Embassy in Jerusalem, even though all government functions were performed in Jerusalem. Most reasoned that their move would undermine the peace process despite the lack of real peace since most Arab states refuse to recognize Israel as a nation.

Even now, only five Arab countries recognize Israel three within the last five years; Egypt, Jordan, UAE, Bahrain, And Morocco. In 1995 The United States passed the ‘Jerusalem Embassy Act,’ but for 23 years, the US government failed to enact the move until 2018. In 2018, President Donald Trump signed the order for the moving of the Embassy, making it the first nation to do so, followed by Guatemala, Kosovo, and Honduras, while the governments of Brazil, Czechia, Hungary, Romania, Armenia, Uganda, and Rwanda Promised to move their Embassies. After the announcement and move of the American Embassy, Palestinians in the Gaza Strip began to amass along the security fence between Israel and the Strip. Between March 2018 and December 2019, on average, 10,000 to 35,000 protested at the border daily. When these protests took place, they would quickly turn into riots. At the same time, the Israelis would position snipers to neutralize armed Palestinians who were actively threatening the security wall.

The Palestinians would light tires on fire daily and roll them toward the Israeli security fence to conceal their movements up to the wall. They would launch balloons and kites with Incendiary devices attacked to float across the border and cause fires; many were decorated with Nazi Iconography. The kites would burn approximately 5,000 Acres of farmland and forests, causing between one million and two million USD worth of economic damage and ecological damage to the area that most have stated would take decades to recover. At the end of these protests in December, around 200 Palestinians were killed; approximately 80% or more were members of Hamas, Fatah, PIJ, PFLP, or DFLP terror groups, while many others were exposed to tear gas or hit by flying debris. Hamas and other Palestinian groups claimed that the IDF targeted medical personnel and young children, and Israeli and independent agencies investigated all. The claims of medical personnel being targeted were raised, but no solid evidence was presented. An eight-month-old baby was initially cited for having been killed by IDF forces. After an investigation, the baby died due to pre-existing medical conditions, not tear gas exposure as initially indicated.

In 2021 an issue surrounding an Arab area called Sheik Jarrah came to the surface and was proclaimed as a reason for violence that broke out in that year. The begining of this issue started after the War of Israeli Independence was concluded, all Jews were exiled from Judea and Samara (West Bank). This included areas around Jerusalem. One of these areas was a Jewish neighborhood known as Shimon HaTzadik, which was built in 1890 around the Tomb of Simeon, the Just a Jewish Priest of the Second Jewish Temple. The Jordanians went into the Jewish areas of Judea and Samara and seized the property, forcing the Jews out of homes they had lived in for nearly 60 years. The Jordanians then moved Jordanians into the houses, gave some Jordanian deeds to the property while others did not, and renamed Sheik Jarrah's settlement.

The Six-Day War happened in 1967 with the capture of Judea and Samara, opening for Jews forced from their home to return and new Israelis to move into. They found that many of their old homes were now occupied by Arabs. After a lengthy legal battle, the Israeli Supreme Court decided that those Arabs with Jordanian land deeds were now the legal owners of the homes. However, the Arabs, without a land deed, could either move out or pay rent to the Jews whose homes were occupied. From the ruling in 2001 to 2021, the Arab families never paid rent to the Jewish families, and finally, they asked the courts to evict the families for failure to pay rent for 50 years. The legal battle between the Arab families and the Israeli owners lasted for 20 years when finally a decision was made; the Arab families could stay if they recognized the home was the property of the Israeli families, and they started paying the rent, which was around 400 USD yearly.

Under pressure from the Palestinian Authority, Hamas, and other Palestinian groups, the court's decision and proposal were rejected. This was one of the pretexts for Hamas and other groups to begin rioting; another reason Palestinians gave was an alleged incident where Israeli Police entered The Al-Aqsa Mosque and destroyed the loudspeaker equipment and other vital items to perform Islamic services. This claim was unproven but overshadowed when the IDF placed a security checkpoint at the Damascus Gate to the Old City of Jerusalem. Palestinians began complaining about the checkpoint, which caused the IDF to remove it several days later. When the checkpoint was removed, Palestinians entered the Old City and began to beat every Jew they located and beat them while putting it on social media sites like Tik Tok. There were also issues of Palestinians throwing rocks from the Al-Aqsa Mosque area onto Jewish prayers at the Wailing Wall below and Israeli Police.

When Israeli Police entered the Al-Aqsa Mosque area, they were pummeled by rocks, fireworks, and other projectiles. Riots lasted through several nights, including when the Israeli Police entered the Dome of the Rock and Al-Aqsa Mosques to apprehend individuals attacking them; upon entering, they were set upon by more rocks and fireworks than the Palestinians had stockpiled in both Mosques. Hamas and other Palestinian groups claimed that the Israeli Police were unprovoked and attacked Muslims as they prayed in the Mosques, while the Israelis and video show differently.

Many political analyzers contributed to the uptick in unrest, not to what the Israelis were doing, but they were over President Mahmoud Abbas canceling the upcoming Palestinian elections that year. Mahmoud Abbas, the head of the Palestinian Authority, was in his 16th year of a four-year election. Despite their laws requiring an election every four years, the Palestinian Authority had not had one since 2006, when Hamas gained power in the Gaza Strip. The fact Mahmoud Abbas and the Palestinian Authority has not held an election, many Palestinians and those in the international community have seen his rule as less legitimate than it would have been, thus making it harder for security cooperation between Israel and the PA. The elections that were slated for 2021 showed that Hamas would come to power in a landslide; fearing his power would go away if he lost the election, he postponed the Palestinian election indefinitely, and because people do not like it when things like this happen, Mahmoud Abbas began launching rounds of violence against Jews to distract the Palestinian people from the cancelation.

The beginning of 2023 saw tensions between Israel and Lebanon increase; on March 5th, 2023, Lebanese and Israeli army units came into a standoff after the IDF unit allegedly crossed the UN’s Blue Line by one meter. The UN’s blue line is a small buffer zone between the Lebanese and Israeli lines of actual control. The Lebanese army and IDF alerted units, and Israel brought a Merkava 4 MBT to the stand-off location. Both sides eventually backed off without any injuries being reported. On March 15th, a Hezbollah fighter targeted a civilian vehicle with a roadside bomb before being killed by an IDF soldier. On March 21st, two IDF soldiers were wounded after their vehicle hit a mine; the IDF suspects Hezbollah fighters planted it. April 6th saw Hezbollah's most significant round of Rocket attacks from Lebanon since the Lebanese War in 2006. Increased stabbings and shootings in Judea and Samara (West Bank) from Fatah and Hamas and more rocket attacks from Hamas, Palestine Islamic Jihad, and others from Gaza.

The Fatah Organization was formed in the post-WW2 era when Amin al-Husseini was arrested by the French and labeled a war criminal. Still, he escaped punishment from the British for his actions in the region called Palestine and Yugoslavia for genocide by going to Egypt with the aid of the French. In Egypt, he organized Arabs against Israel, called the Arab Higher Committee, and included representation of Arabs in Palestine in the Arab League. He also participated in the Israeli War of Independence, where He and the other Arab armies failed to wipe Israel out. In the 1950s, Amin Al-Husseini was an advisor to Gamal Abdel Nasser and advised him to allow specific individuals into the country to assist Nasser and himself in fighting against the Newly formed Jewish state. Al-Husseini suggested bringing around a dozen Nazis into the country to help Nasser in training military and paramilitary groups for future wars against Israel Nasser brought in Johann von Leers, a Nazi Propagandist famous for his Anti-Semitic articles and illustrations, Gerhard Bohne, an SS officer responsible for massacres of Jews in Belarus, Otto Skorzeny another SS officer whose fame came from his rescue of Mussolini, Robert Jan Verbelen SS officer who fought exclusively on the Eastern front, Hans Appler SS officer who oversaw the deportation of the French Jewish population. These Nazis began to train the Egyptian armies and the Arabs who left Israel after the War of Independence. During this time Al-Husseini took under his tutelage one Yasser Arafat, who took to the teachings well. Al-Husseini would proclaim he was so proud of Yasser Arafat that he stated they were related. In 1959 Yasser Arafat formed the Terror group Fatah with four others, quickly amassing a following, and took in Mahmoud Abbas in 1961. In 1967 Fatah and PLO would merge, with Fatah being an arm of the PLO.

"These martyrdom operations by the sons of Jerusalem – the place from which our Prophet Muhammad ascended to Heaven... What has been an Intifada has now turned into a war. This war will not end [until] we avenge the blood of our martyrs in Jenin and everywhere else. We salute those heroic commanders who drew a new picture in the heart of Jerusalem, [our] eternal capital. We congratulate our Palestinian people and our Arab and Islamic nation. Confront the occupation soldiers and the herds of settlers with weapons and bullets. This should be the only language we use with the occupation. We congratulate our righteous martyrs. Today, we are handing out sweets instead of dates in congratulation of our heroic martyrs.” - Ata Abu Rumeileh, Fatah's Secretary in Jenin.

The Palestine Liberation Orginization (PLO) was created with Arab League and Soviet KGB backing in 1964 and quickly became one of the most powerful Arab groups. After the Six-Day War, The PLO and Fatah merged, taking the PLO name; al-Husseini backed the PLO. Yasser Arafat took control of the Organization after the merger and relocated the organization to Jordan in 1968, where they launched raids against Israel. On September 6th, 1970, the PLO and its member groups performed the Dawson's Field hijackings which ended on an airfield in Zarqa. The PLO also began to attempt to seize civil power from the Jordanian government, which sparked a backlash against the PLO and member organizations. Jordan began military operations against the PLO on the 16th. From that day, the PLO called this time in their history “Black September.” The conflict soon resulted in the expulsion of the PLO organization and its member groups. The PLO relocated to Lebanon, a key event sparking the Lebanese civil war. From their base in Lebanon, the PLO began performing cross-border attacks against Israel and launching terror attacks against Israel sanctioned by Yasser Arafat. In 1982, the IDF forced the PLO from Lebanon, which allowed Yasser Arafat and the remnants of the PLO to exile to Tunis, Tunisia. The first Intifada began in 1987 and quickly became violent, with the PLO directing the activity in hopes of destroying the Israeli government.

In 1991 Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait, and nearly every Arab country was against Iraq’s invasion except Yasser Arafat. This caused Arafat to become Isolated, and his organization began losing support and funding from Arab states. Israel and the PLO, through back channels, had started to negotiate, leading to the Oslo Accords of 1993, which created the Palestinian Authority (PA) led by Yasser Arafat as well as control over Gaza and Arab Majorities in Judea and Samara (West Bank) in exchange for Arafat and his organization would Recognize Israel and renounce terrorism and violence. It should be noted that the PA and PLO are separate organizations, but the PLO political party holds representation in the PA. Yasser Arafat died in November 2004 via a stroke, and his second in command, Mahmoud Abbas, took control of the PLO and the PA. Mahmoud Abbas, whose university dissertation about denying the Holocaust, has been in power since 2004 and then elected for a 4-year term which he has served 16 years of that. Abbas is currently 88 years old as of 2023. It was found after Arafat’s death that he had embezzled between 1 and 5 billion dollars in aid and PLO funds.

The PLO performed many cross-border raids and attacks against Israel, including Rocket attacks and so-called ‘lone-wolf’ attacks. The most famous attacks began in 1972 a PLO faction known as ‘Black September’ kidnapped and murdered 11 Israeli athletes in Munich, West Germany. Three years later, the PLO would attack the Savoy Hotel killing eight people and wounding more than a dozen. In 1978 the PLO Preformed the Coastal Road Massacre, where 11 PLO militants landed a boat near Tel Aviv. Where they Murdered 48 Israelis, 13 of whom were children, and one American was a niece to a US Senator. In 1985 PLO terrorists boarded an Italian cruise ship. They murdered a disabled American woman throwing her body off the vessel’s side in an attempt to have Israel release Palestinian terrorists. In 2001 following the Tel Aviv Dolphinarium discotheque Suicide bombing, the PLO perpetuated the Sbarro restaurant bombing, murdering 15 Israelis. In 2016 The PLO performed the Jerusalem bus station bombing, killing one and injuring 14. According to Intelligence agencies, the PLO was the most affluent terror organization in 1993, with over 10 billion dollars in assets and receiving more than 1 billion dollars yearly. They allegedly gathered the money from donations upfront or by proxy, extortion, gun running, Drug and human trafficking, fraud, and other illegal means. The PLO is an umbrella organization with multiple factions under its control; those factions are; Fatah, Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP), Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (DFLP), Palestinian People’s Party (PPP), Palestine Liberation Front (PLF), Palestinian Popular Struggle Front (PPSF), Arab Liberation Front (ALF) and the Palestinian Democratic Union (Fida). It should be noted that other groups used to be under the PLO umbrella but have been disbanded and absorbed by the remaining factions.

"The Palestinian Liberation Organization is a sea of martyrs' blood. We are proud and honored to belong to this [Fatah] movement, of whose Central Committee members two-thirds were martyred, for the sake of Palestine and Jerusalem, alongside their comrades in arms, the [other] factions of the PLO. Fatah fired the first bullet and then continued on its path with Abu Jihad, the first stone [thrown] at the First Intifada, and then the Second Intifada.” - Ahmad As'ad, the deputy governor of the Tubas Governorate of the Palestinian Authority

The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) was formed by George Habash in 1967 as a Marxist-Leninist faction for Palestinian Arabs and became a PLO arm in 1968. PFLP’s goal was to eliminate the Jews living in Israel and enact an Arab Communist state inside the territory of Israel. The PFLP formed ties with the Soviet Union and Communist China and regional ties with Iran, Iraq, Syria, and other Arab states. The PFLP has been accused of diverting European aid money from Palestinian NGOs to itself. The PFLP was one of the first groups to perform armed hijacking of aircraft and armed attacks to reach their goals. The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) has been involved in various terrorist attacks.

The PFLP is famous for multiple hijackings and attacks on Israels’ airport. The most famous is in May 1972, when PFLP agents attacked Ben Gurion International Airport killing 28 passengers and wounding many more, causing increased security at the airport and making Ben Gurion one of, if not the most secure airports in the world. Yet the PFLPs hijacking of Air France 139 goes into the annals of military history known by its name, Operation Thunderbolt. Air France 139 originated in Israel but unknowingly picked up the hijackers in Athens, Greece, when two PFLP and two German revolutionary cell members hijacked the aircraft and took it to the hijacker’s destination in Entebbe, Uganda. The Hijackers received a warm welcome from the Ugandan government and divided the Israelis from those who were non-Israeli, later releasing the non-Israelis. The hijackers would demand money and the release of terrorists in Israel and Europe, The Israeli government determined that it could not and would not comply with the demands. They organized a rescue operation that seemed impossible, The Israelis had to take 100-plus personnel, approximately 2,500 miles (4,023Km), while flying no higher than 100 feet (30 km) to avoid hostile nations’ air defense. Israel managed to gain permission to land in Kenya to refuel before flying to the Entebbe airport. The rescue mission lasted less than an hour and ended in rescuing all but three of the hostages and one Israeli soldier while killing every hijacker and a large portion of the Ugandan military presence.

The PFLP rejected the Oslo Accords’ requirement to reject terrorism and engage in negotiations; this rejection has not seen their expulsion from the PLO or the PA but has strained relations with Mahmoud Abbas. PFLP has started working closely with Iran, Hezbollah, and Hamas, stating that ‘Hamas is a vital part of the Palestinian movement.’ The current leader is Ahmad Sa'adat, who was arrested and jailed in 2002; the organization has continued to conduct terror activity and performs activity in Syria during the Syrian Civil War.

“First and foremost, through martyrdom-seeking operations. What is required of the young people now is to use all the means [of fighting]: knives, Molotov cocktails, pistols, and Kalashnikov rifles." - Maher Mezher, a member of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) Central Committee.

Ahmed Jibril founded the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-General Command (PFLP-GC) in 1986 from the splinter faction of the PFLP. Ahmed Jibril believed the PFLP organization and the leadership did not have much initiative in carrying out armed attacks against Israel. Therefore, he splintered off to carry out attacks with his organization. The PFLP-GC still follows the Marxist-Leninist viewpoint on Communism. The PFLP-GC initially fell under the PLO umbrella until 1974, when they had political disagreements with Yasser Arafat over his views on possible negotiations with Israel about Lebanon. The PFLP-GC came to prominence in the 1970s when the organization got two bombs on a Swissair flight to Tel Aviv and on an Austrian Airlines flight also heading to Tel Aviv. The PFLP-GC would become internationally famous for bombing aircraft and would be implicated in the 1988 Pan-Am Flight 103 Lockerbie bombing on orders from Iran. On the other hand, Israel became famous for attacking schoolchildren on multiple occasions. On May 22nd, 1970, the PFLP-GC ambushed a school bus filled with children between the ages of six and eight years old with Automatic weapons and RPGs, which caused the bus to crash. The PFLP-GC continued to fire on the school bus and killed nine schoolchildren and three adults, and wounded 25 other schoolchildren before the PFLP-GC members fled. In April of 1974, PFLP-GC members traveled to the city of Kiryat Shmona, where they entered an elementary school and other buildings and shot 33 Israelis, killing 18 of which 8 were children, and would wound the others. The PFLP-GC attacks and cross-border raids would be one of the many reasons that would lead to the 1982 Invasion of Lebanon. During the 1990s and 2000s, the PFLP-GC began supporting smuggling operations for Hezbollah, Hamas, Syria, and Iran in carrying out attacks against Israel. With the Syrian Civil War, the PFLP-GC has assisted the Assad Regime. It remains inside the Yarmouk Refugee camp, with preliminary information about their numbers and status.

"The Islamic Republic [of Iran] has made a great contribution and invested a lot of effort in developing the military capabilities of the Palestinian resistance through training, developing weapons, and teaching our comrades among the Palestinian people in Gaza and the West Bank how to manufacture weapons and rockets. As you know, there are difficulties in transporting these weapons and rockets to occupied Palestine." - Talal Naji, Secretary-General of the Popular Front for the Liberation Of Palestine General Command (PFLP-GC).

The Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine is a Marxist-Maoist organization founded in 1970 by Nayef Hawatmeh, who left the PFLP over disagreements with the Communist ideology. The DFLP is seen as a more intellectual of the Palestinian terror groups not perpetrating many terrorist attacks, preferring to be a supporting role in others attacks. The DFLP primarily struck targets inside Israel, with some bombings and shootings attributed to them. Their most significant attack was on May 15, 1974, in a town called Ma'alot-Tarshiha which was settled primarily by Moroccan Jews expelled from Morocco. Three DFLP members entered the city, killing two Arab women driving a van before entering an apartment where they killed a Pregnant woman, her five-year-old son, five-year-old daughter, and her husband. After they murdered a sanitation worker, they entered the Netiv Meir Elementary School, where they took around 102 people, hostage, almost all children. The next day the Israeli Sayeret Matkal, a Tier 1 Special Operations Group, stormed the school, killing two terrorists. However, the third Terrorist was able to enter the room that held the hostages and began to shoot them and throw fragmentation grenades among the crowd before being killed. In total, 25 of the hostages, 22 being children, were killed, while the rest were injured, raising the total number of dead to 31 in what would be called the Ma'alot massacre.

The organization would clash with Yasser Arafat over ideas on multiple occasions over the years but would always return to the fold of the PLO hierarchy. The DFLP has not performed any high-profile terrorist attacks since 1974 but has participated in both Intifadas and carried out low-level attacks on IDF soldiers. On September 11, 2001, an anonymous caller attempted to claim responsibility for the attacks on the Twin Towers and the Pentagon; the DFLP leadership would publicly denounce the attacks in response. In modern times, the DFLP would continue to commit low-level attacks against the IDF primarily and assists the organization in riots and larger attacks performed by other organizations.

The Kingdom of Jordan Expelled the PLO in September 1970 in what is called Black September in the Palestinian community. A PLO officer called Salah Khalaf wished to carry out revenge against Jordan and formed a group called Black September Organization (BSO) in October 1970. The BSO’s first attack would come in November 1971 with the Assassination of the Jordanian Prime Minister Wasfi al-Tal for the expulsion of the PLO. The following month they would assassinate Zeid al Rifai, the Jordanian Ambassador to England. In February 1972, the BSO carried out Sabotage operations against German and Dutch Gas power plants. In May 1972, four BSO members hijacked Sabena Flight 571, landed in Israel, and was stormed by the IDF, killing two hijackers and arresting the other two. In September 1972, during the Munich Summer Olympics, eight BSO members entered the lightly protected Olympic village and the Israeli apartment block killing two Israelis and taking nine hostages. The West Germans, who had no special forces team or police team experienced in Hostage rescue, rejected Israeli offers to lend their special forces unit to the Germans. After several bungled rescue attempts, the West Germans allowed the BSO members and their hostages to board helicopters and enter an aircraft destined for Egypt. The German police placed five regular police officers in sniper positions at the airport, giving them basic rifles with no scopes while they put 16 other police officers in the aircraft disguised as the flight crew. The 16 officers in their aircraft abandoned their positions, so when the kidnappers quickly discovered they were in danger and began to shoot their hostages as well as blow up the helicopters while the police in sniper position opened fire on the BSO members. When the dust settled, all 9 Israeli hostages were killed, along with 1 West German police officer and 5 BSO members. This caused the Israelis to withdraw from the Olympics game and saw the West Germans release the three surviving BSO members. In the same month, the BSO would mail multiple letter bombs to Israeli diplomats across Europe, killing the Israeli Agricultural counselor Ami Shachori in Britain.

The BSO would conduct further attacks on the Jewish diaspora using bombing and shooting attacks. They would also target Saudi Arabian and Israeli diplomats and leadership for assassination with mixed results. In December 1985, the BSO members organized two simultaneous attacks on the Rome Fiumicino Leonardo da Vinci Airport and the Vienna International Airport. Four attackers armed with Assault rifles and grenades opened fire on the El Al ticket counter, killing 16 and wounding 99 before three BSO terrorists were killed and one was captured by El Al security. At the same time, three other BSO terrorists entered the Vienna airport and opened fire, killing three and wounding 38 others before El Al and Austrian police killed one and captured two. This attack overhauled El Al’s security, improving it drastically. Officially the Black September Organization would be disbanded in 1974, but members of the BSO would splinter off into the Abu Nidal Organization until around 1997. Other members would integrate into Fatah, PFLP, DFLP, and other groups under the PLO umbrella.

The Palestine Liberation Front (PLF) was founded in 1959 by Iraq’s Ba’ath party with Abu Abbas as its leader. Iraq’s Ba’ath Party and Saddam Hussein funded and directed the PLF until 2003, when the United States invaded Iraq. The PLF has primarily operated as a political group under the PLO Umbrella, but they have their list of terror attacks. In Nahariya, Israel, on April 1979, four PLF members entered Israel via beach infiltration and, per instructions given by the PLO, scared an Israeli family into calling a police officer. When the police officer arrived, the four militants opened fire, killing the officer. Then they went to an apartment complex and broke into several apartments. One PLF member was killed by one of the apartment’s residents, but the other three managed to kidnap a father and his daughter. When Israeli police disabled the PLF members’ boats, the three murdered their hostages before two of the PLF were killed, and the other was wounded.

The PLF carried out several large-scale terror attacks, the first against the cruise liner MS Achille Lauro. PLF members murdered a wheelchair-bound elderly American before escaping to Egypt as heroes. The PLO would claim to disapprove of their attacks, but the PLF leader, Abu Abbas, would continue being a part of the Palestinian Committee. The PLF would have a setback in November 2001 when the IDF captured 15 PLF members from crossing the Jordan-Israeli border on their way back from a terror training camp in Iraq. The PLF’s decline started in 2003 when American forces captured the PLF leader Abu Abbas in Iraq, and he died of natural causes in 2004. The PLF is now under the control of Wasel Abu Yousef, and the PLF committed several small-scale terror attacks in 2008 and 2010 but has been quiet in recent history.

"Throw stones and shoot bullets. Stones have turned into Kalashnikovs. Bring your rockets, bring your rockets. Oh, my homeland, we are coming for you. Ululate, oh Grad rockets, send my regards to the country” - pro-Palestinian "March for Return and Liberation" was held in Brussels, Belgium.

In 1978, the Kingdom of Iran experienced a revolt, collapsed under the weight of the revolution, and saw the Islamic Republic of Iran (IRI) rise under Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini in 1979. Before 1979 Iran was friendly with Israel, but when the Kingdom of Iran fell, the relations turned hostile. The Islamic Republic of Iran then formed the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) as an independent military branch beholden to Iran’s Supreme Leader. The Supreme Leaders of Iran are selected from the Islamic Assembly of Experts from a list of approved candidates from the Guardian Council, a body of top Shia Imams in Iran. The Supreme leader has been Ali Khamenei, Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, Mohammad Khatami, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, Hassan Rouhani, and the current Supreme leader Ebrahim Raisi; these leaders have overseen the IRGC and directed their operations directly. The IRGC is broken into five departments, the land forces, Aerospace Force, Navy, Quds Force, and Basij Militia, and has around 500,000 personnel in the divisions.

The Quds Force is the ‘special operations division of the IRGC conducting attacks and terror attacks across the globe. The most famous commander of the Quds force was Qasem Soleimani, who was killed in a drone strike in Iraq while meeting with Iraqi government officials. The Quds forces actively fund, equip and train foreign terror groups like Hezbollah, Hamas, Palestinian Islamic Jihad, Yemeni Houthis, and other Shia militia groups and are active worldwide. The Quds Force’s first known operation it backed was the 1983 Beirut barracks bombings. The Islamic Jihad Organization acted as the front group when a van filled with explosives detonated, killing 299 American and French service members and six civilians. In 1992 IRGC-Quds funded the bombing of the Israeli Embassy in Buenos Aires, Argentina killing 29 and injuring 242; the Quds force used the Islamic Jihad Organization and Hezbollah as a front to take responsibility. Almost two years later, using Hezbollah as a front, the Quds forces bombed the AMNI Jewish Center in Buenos Aires, killing 85 and wounding over 300; the Quds forces using Ansar Allah, detonated bombs on an aircraft killing 21, 12 being Israeli, as well as bombing the Israeli embassy and Jewish center in London. In 2011 a plot to detonate a bomb in Washington DC to try to kill the Saudi Ambassador and blow up the Saudi and Israeli Embassy was uncovered and stopped; the plot was liked to Iran and the IRGC Quds Forces.

“If it is possible to strike fear in the White House and in Tel-Aviv and to scare the Zionists and the Americans, that would be a great honor.” - Hasan Abassi, Head of the Center of External Security Doctrinal Analysis of the IRGC.

This quote along with many others would continue to show that the current leadership of Iran is a reason why peace between Iran, Israel, and the rest of the Middle east will not be solved for a long time.

In July of the next year, in Burgas, Bulgaria, near the local airport, a bus carrying Israeli tourists exploded, killing six and wounding 32. The IRGC is implicated in supplying weapons, IEDs, and other munitions to groups in Iraq and Afghanistan that actively led to the death and injuring of American service members. Iran and the IRGC are also linked in supplying Hamas, Hezbollah, and others with long-range missiles and rockets launched at Israel. The Iranian leadership and IRGC are famous for chanting “Death to Israel” and “Death to America.” At the same time, the Obama and Biden administrations attempt to reach a nuclear deal even though Iranian has threatened Israel with atomic fire.

“As for this missile's development, I've said earlier at a news conference that if Israel makes the mistake of threatening and endangering our country's interests, our response will certainly be strong and crucial. I have used the same expressions and said that we would destroy Israel and erase it from existence. These were not empty words.” - Gen. Mas'oud Jazaeri, IRGC Spokesman.

Palestine Islamic Jihad (PIJ), also known as the Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine, was formed in 1981 by Fathi Shaqaqi and received funding and support from the IRGC-Quds Forces and Iran in general. The PIJ is based in Syria among some refugee camps, Judea and Samara (West Bank), and the Gaza Strip. Their ideology is based on Islamic law and aims to destroy the Jewish state. The PIJ’s first attack was the assassination of the Israeli chief of police in the Gaza Strip in August 1987. In July 1989, a PIJ member attacked Egged Bus 405, an Israeli Bus traveling between Tel Aviv and Jerusalem, which left 14 people dead. In April 1992, the PIJ ambushed an IDF convoy attempting to kill the head of IDF north command, Major-General Yitzhak Mordechai; the ambush failed, with three PIJ members being killed 2 IDF soldiers killed as well.

“My message to every Palestinian mother is that she should urge her sons to wage Jihad. Jihad for the sake of Allah is our most lofty desire... Is this not Jihad? Is this not martyrdom? Death is inevitable, so why not die as martyrs? I salute every mother of a martyr who urged her children to wage Jihad. I salute every mother of a martyr who bade her son farewell with ululations.” - Umm Iyad Al-Ashqar, mother of two PIJ terrorists who died trying to kill Jews.

In April 1994, the PIJ detonated a bomb on a bus killing nine and injuring 50. 1995 saw three bombing attacks in January and April, killing 27 and wounding 42 others. March 1996 saw the bombing of a mall in Tel Aviv, killing 20 and injuring 75 others. Between 2000 and 2007, the PIJ committed ten bombing attacks killing approximately 100 people. November 2002 saw a six-hour ambush at the Tomb of the Patriarchs, a Jewish Holy Site, where 12 Israelis from the IDF, Israeli Border Police, and Kiryat Arba Emergency Response Team. The attackers were three members of the PIJ who had been recruited at the Hebron Polytechnic and would all be killed at the end of the ambush. The following month saw other PIJ members murder several Police officers and target a small Jewish college just south of Hebron. In June 2007, PIJ and Martyrs’ Brigade members attacked the Kissufim crossing between Israel and Gaza using a media-marked van. From 2009 to the present has seen the PIJ performed rocket attacks alongside Hamas using Iranian-made Fajr-5, PIJ-made al-Quds rockets, and Hamas-made Qassam rockets. The PIJ still receives approximately 70 million USD from Iran and is responsible for approximately 35% of the 20,000 to 30,000 Rocket and Mortar attacks against Israel.

“Praise be to Allah. This is what she asked for, and Allah did not disappoint her. Praise be to Allah for honoring her and giving her [what she wanted] …When my father was told that his daughter carried out the operation, he started handing out sweets. He said that he wants congratulations, not condolences.” - Hanadi Jaradat’s family explaining what they felt when they heard she blew herself up.

Hezbollah was founded in 1982 by Abbas al-Musawi in Lebanon during the Israeli intervention in the Lebanese Civil War and was centered around the Shia Muslim community. Hezbollah would quickly rise in popularity and became a powerful presence in Lebanon. Hezbollah gets much of its funding from Iran and the IRGC, supplemented by the South American drug trade and African Blood diamond trade. Hezbollah has been linked to the 1983 Beirut barracks bombing, killing 299 service members. Hezbollah was also linked to the Israeli Embassy and AMNI bombings in Buenos Aires in 1992 and 1994. The Islamic Jihad Organization is a front group to obscure Hezbollah’s involvement when the group believes deniability is needed. Hezbollah has representatives in the Lebanese government and is more significant and better equipped than the Lebanese military. Hezbollah has between 50,000 and 100,000 active fighters under its command. In contrast, the Lebanese army has approximately 80,000 soldiers described as undertrained, underequipped, and unmotivated, thus giving Hezbollah outsized power over the state of Lebanon. Hezbollah would continue to launch attacks against Israeli and American Targets in Lebanon, Israel, or outside. They Hijacked TWA Flight 847 in 1985, murdering one American, Robert Stethem, before taking the other hostages to Lebanon and scattering them throughout the nation. Between 1982 and 1992 was the Lebanese Hostage Crisis, which saw Hezbollah take 104 hostages, throughout the ten years; some of the hostages from TWA Flight 847 are considered among the number. In 1992 Abbas al-Musawi was killed in an airstrike by Israel; he was replaced by Hassan Nasrallah, who increased attacks against Israel and the United States, resulting in the 1992 and 1994 bombings in Argentina as well as the 1996 Khobar Tower bombing. Hezbollah would continuously launch cross-border raids from Lebanon into Israel and rocket attacks culminating in the 2006 Lebanon War. Hezbollah has claimed the Tamar Gas fields in the Mauritanian Sea and inside Israel’s exclusive economic zone, threatening to attack any Israeli ship.

Hezbollah was responsible for the attack on the Israeli consul in Turkey in 2011, which wounded eight Turkish civilians. In 2012 a Hezbollah member was arrested for entering Cyprus with a list and photos of Israelis he was going to attempt to kill. Hezbollah would assist Iran and the Assad regime in the Syrian Civil War and operate in Iraq with Iran. Hezbollah would begin operations in Latin America, work with drug cartels in the triple frontier area, and assist in smuggling operations into the United States. Hezbollah would have operations inside the United States, mainly in recruitment and target acquisition, and the FBI arrested one Hezbollah recruiter in 2013. Israel stated they believed Hezbollah has between 150,000 and 200,000 rockets and mortars spread out along the Lebanese-Israeli border stockpiled in Hospitals, schools, and civilian homes. In 2010 the US Secretary of Defense, in leaked documents, stated that Hezbollah is armed with Iranian Anti-Ship missiles as well as hypothesize they were armed with chemical and biological weapons since The US was unable to convince Syria or Iran to supply Hezbollah with any weapon systems or stop the movement of weapons and arms to the group. Hezbollah has state allies of Iran, Syria, North Korea, Russia, and Communist China though few provide Hezbollah with direct support.

"I am a Muslim. I am not a Communist or a Marxist. I oppose both Marxism and Communism. This analysis of yours is a Marxist-Communist analysis because the Koran says that our battle is with the Jews. Zionism is not mentioned in the Koran. Our war is against the Jews.” Ahmad Rami, head of Radio Islam in Sweden and Hezbollah member.

Hamas was formed in December 1987 by multiple Muslim Brotherhood members, namely Sheikh Ahmed Yassin, Abdel Aziz al-Rantissi, and Mahmoud Zahar who proliferated suicide attacks, rocket attacks, stabbings, shootings, bombings, and more against Israel. Hamas has groups inside the Gaza Strip, Judea and Samara (West Bank), Jordan, Kuwait, and Syria exercising power and control of various levels over the Palestinian communities in those areas. Hamas gathers funds from taxes and rents in the Gaza Strip, officially owning 2,000 acres of land in the Gaza Strip and 20% ownership of the Al-Aqsa International Bank. Hamas also gathers funds from front groups posing as charity organizations, such as the Holy Land Foundation for Relief and Development, which was used by terrorist networks to funnel money to their organization and provided Hamas with approximately 12 million dollars in donations.

Hamas would also receive significant contributions from people across the Arab world and Iran, with an annual budget of 70 million dollars annually. Hamas is armed with thousands of rockets and mortars and is projected to be responsible for about half of all rocket attacks against Israel; they are also responsible for between 1,000 and 2,000 terrorist attacks against Israel, nearly 500 of which were during the second intifada. In 1994 Hamas committed five suicide bombings, killing 38 Israelis, wounding 160, and destroying property. Between 1995 and 1999, Hamas committed around 13 terrorist attacks, killing 96 Israeli civilians and injuring over 500. Between 2000 and 2009, Hamas committed around 90 terrorist attacks killing over 200 civilians and wounding over 3,000. In 1994 around Dizengoff Street in Tel Aviv, a Hamas Member blew himself up, killing 22 and injuring around 50; the bombing occurred because Hamas’s best bomb maker, Yahya Ayyash, felt an earlier attack did not kill enough Jews. In February and March of 1996, two Hamas members performed suicide bombings killing 33 Israelis and wounding around 55; the attacks occurred because the IDF had killed Hamas’s best bomb maker, Yahya Ayyash, in January. In June of 2001, a Hamas suicide bomber approached the Dolphinarium discotheque, where a line of Russian teenage Jews was waiting to enter the discotheque. Where the bomber taunted and harassed adolescent girls before he blew himself up, killing 22 and wounding 120. In March 2002, at the Park Hotel in Netanya, during a Passover seder, a Hamas suicide bomber entered the dining hall in the hotel and detonated his explosive vest killing 30 Israelis and wounding 140. Hamas has a charter, just like Hezbollah’s manifesto stating its justification for existing. It says,

“Israel will exist and will continue to exist until Islam obliterates it, just as it obliterated others before it."

The manifesto includes this story.

"The Day of Judgement will not come about until Moslems fight the Jews (killing the Jews), when the Jew will hide behind stones and trees. The stones and trees will say O Moslems, O Abdulla; there is a Jew behind me; come and kill him. Only the Gharkad tree (evidently a certain kind of tree) would not do that because it is one of the trees of the Jews." (related by al-Bukhari and Moslem).

Even today, in public, the leadership calls for violence against civilians in Israel, stating:

"And indeed, oh Zionists, you are thorns, and we are going to uproot you, Allah willing, with exes, cleavers, knives, guns, and our nails, Allah willing. We will not leave a single one of you [alive], and that is not hard for Allah to do." - Mushir al-Masri, Hamas MP.

Hamas members rarely if at all talk about building homes, schools, or hospitals. They speak about death and killing on a routine basis.

“We are ready with our weapons. We are ready with our rockets. We are ready to blow up buses. We are ready to carry out suicide missions.” -Mushir al-Masri, Hamas MP.

Openly calling for the genocide of the Jews has become standard among Hamas and other Palestinian leadership with little if any sign of the calls ending.

“All of you 7 million Palestinians abroad, enough of the warming up. You have Jews everywhere! We must attack every Jew on planet Earth; we must slaughter and kill them, with Allah’s help” – Fathi Hamad, senior Hamas official.

The biggest issue is the people openly calling the genocide of the Jews are high leadership in the palestinian groups and thus affecting any possibility for peace.

“Oh, Allah, destroy the Jews and their supporters. Oh Allah, count them one by one, and kill them all without leaving a single one.” Ahmad Bahr, deputy speaker of the Hamas Parlament.

Even worse is that on Palestinian television the Palestinain people are taught how and where to stab and attack Jews.

“People of Jerusalem, we want you to cut off the heads of the Jews with Knives. [Then,] with your hand, cut their artery here [demonstrates]” - Fathi Hammad, Senior Hamas Official.

There seems to be a willful blindness in the west thinking the Israelis are the barrier for peace when the Palestinian leadership is stating stuff like this.

“But from us here in Gaza, they will never get anything but gunfire. They will never get anything but martyrdom. They will never get anything but death and killing.” - Yahya Sinwar, Leader of Hamas in Gaza.

When the Palestinians call the Jews foreigners they are stretching the definition the term foreigner to the breaking point since there has been a Jewish presence in the State of Israel and the greater Middle eastern area for over three millennium.

"We see the hordes of foreigners [Jews], the brothers of apes and pigs, spread corruption, injustice, and evil [at the Al-Aqsa Mosque] … How can we defeat the enemy? Unfortunately, some beloved preachers in different corners of the Earth do not understand what defeating the enemy means for us … We will defeat the enemy with weapons, oh esteemed people. We will defeat the enemy by inflicting fear and terror upon it. We will defeat the enemy by training men. All the Palestinians and Muslims should make preparations. They should prepare for a day when they will heed a call to arms … Oh Allah, bring annihilation upon the Jews. Oh Allah, bring annihilation upon the Jews. Paralyze them, destroy their entity, tear them apart, bring upon them a terrible punishment. Oh Allah, enable us to get to the necks of the Jews. Oh Allah, enable us to get to the necks of the Jews. Oh Allah, enable us to get to the necks of the Jews.” - Sheikh Hamad Al-Regeb, Hamas official.

But you also have the families of terrorists commending and exulting others to attack Israelis on Palestinian TVs:

"He loved martyrdom. He would say to me, day and night, 'Mom, I want to be martyred.' He would kiss my hand and say: 'Pray to Allah that I will be martyred.' I would say: 'May Allah give you what you want, inshallah.' Praise be to Allah for granting him what he wanted.” – Mother of Hassan Qatanani, a Terrorist who murdered two children and their mother in cold blood.

It is discusting to hear the family members of terrorists speaking highly of them and hear that they had been indoctrinated into the belief that murder of Jews and committing acts of violence is the pinnicle of what any muslim can do in their lives.

"I call upon all of you to fight in support of your religion and in order to liberate your Al-Aqsa Mosque. You must fight the enemy wherever it is. Brothers, Jihad is the pinnacle of Islam.” - Mustafa Abu Bakr, Grandfather of the 2001 Dolphinarium discotheque Bomber.

Hassan Qatanani was a Hamas member who, in early April of 2023, with two other Hamas members, drove alongside Lucy (45) Dee, her two daughters, Maia (20) and Rina (15), and opened fire on their vehicle, killing Maia and Rina instantly and Lucy would die a week later. When Dee’s vehicle came to a stop Hassan Qatanani and the other Hamas members jumped out of their car and poured more rounds into the vehicle. At the beginning of May 2023, Hassan and the two other members would be killed in a shoot-out with IDF soldiers. Hamas would call the three members heroes, and the Palestinian Authority would claim Israel was being overly aggressive with the PA President Mahmoud Abbas attending the funeral of the three Hamas members. The PA would also call the three Hamas members martyrs and go on a speech about Israel’s daily crimes against Palestinian freedom fighters. Mustafa Abu Bakr, the grandfather of the 2001 Dolphinarium bomber, has never said anything negative against Hamas or any other Terrorist organization and sent his sons and grandchildren to their deaths. Bakr lost two sons who were killed while attempting to kill Israeli civilians, as well as losing several grandchildren as they were committing terrorist acts. Hamas, like other Palestinian terrorist groups, alongside the PA, continues to pay financial benefits to the families of terrorists who die killing Israelis. Hamas is one of the largest terrorist groups that Israel faces today.

Tanzim, or Fatah Tanzim, is a youth terrorist group formed by Yasser Arafat in 1995 and designed to skirt around the Oslo Accords. Many of the members of the Tanzim are of the ages 10 to 20 and employes both male and female Palestinians; most of the members who reach 18-20 then join the al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades. The Tanzim group performs riots, stabbings, shootings, and several suicide bombings. Tanzim members during the second intifada were famous for drive-by shootings and stabbings, killing multiple Israelis. One famous attack was when one of their members murdered a 10-month-old baby using a sniper rifle. In addition, Tanzim killed 15 and wounded 300 in numerous suicide bombings against Israelis. Israel has arrested Marwan Barghouti, the head of Tanzim. He now serves five life sentences concerning the murders and terrorist acts he ordered while in charge of Tanzim and his activities in the al-Aqsa Martyrs’ Brigades.

"I joined Fatah when I was 14 years old. Today I am 52 years old, so we are talking about 36-37 years in Fatah. I was in Fatah in the First and Second Intifadas… When I began teaching during the Al-Aqsa Intifada, and I was part of the Tanzim [militia], we always used to teach our young, our children, that Palestine is from the [Mediterranean] Sea to the [Jordan] River.” - Ismail Awda, Fatah Terrorist.

Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades (AMB) was founded by Yasser Arafat in 2000. Fatah and Arafat attempted to conceal their connection with the AMB until 2003 when a BBC report officially linked Fatah and the AMB. Per the name, the AMB is composed of multiple cells that fall under the same name; thus, it is a decentralized group with a group in Jenin, Nablus, Hebron, Bethlehem, and other areas, boiling down to if the group has Martyrs’ Brigade in their name. They are likely a cell of the AMB. In Hadera in January 2002, an AMB member opened fire on a bat mitzvah, killing six and wounding 33 people. The following month two AMB members who worked as Palestinian Authority Police officers opened fire at the Ein 'Arik checkpoint near Ein 'Arik, killing five IDF soldiers and another PA police officer. In March of 2002, an AMB attacked a bar mitzvah that killed an infant, a six-year-old boy, a three-year-old boy, his mother, a 12-year-old boy, and two unborn children; in total, 11 people were killed, and more than 50 were wounded. The PA, in a statement, blamed Israel for the attack claiming that Israel was being aggressive while ABM leadership promised more episodes like it to come. In Tel Aviv at the beginning of January 2003, an AMB member blew himself up at the Tel Aviv central bus station killing 22 people and wounding over 100 more. In March 2002, a suicide attack occurred at Café Moment in Jerusalem, killing 11 Israelis and injuring over 200 and was carried out by AMB members with permanent resident status and funded by the Arab Bank. The AMB performs terrorist and rocket attacks alongside Hamas but will work with any group to kill Israelis. In 2007 the PA offered amnesty for any AMB member who gave up their guns and renounced terrorism, and they would then become PA police officers. However, in 2023 the AMB is still committing attacks against Israelis and has been very active in attacking Israelis.

"Oh, brigades of honor and glory! Oh, brigades of truth! Oh, loyal and proud brigades of Abu Ammar [Yasser Arafat]! Oh, sheath of the dagger, oh love of the gun! Oh brigades of Abu Ammar! Tell them with bullets, not words, that Jerusalem is Arab and Arab alone!" - Hussein Hamayel, a Fatah spokesman.

The Lions' Den terrorist group was formed in July 2022 by Mohammed al-Azizi and Abdel Rahman Suboh, who were disaffected members of Hamas and Fatah and wanted to create their group; they quickly gathered a following from fellow disaffected members from other terror groups. The Lions’ Den’s popularity among Palestinian youth took off the next month as the group would record and upload their attacks of Israeli civilians and military personnel onto Tik Tok, the Communist Chinese Government linked social media site. The Lions’ Den group in August 2022 performed multiple shooting and stabbing attacks, followed by September. Even though some of their attacks were foiled and leadership arrested, they still carried out more than two dozen shooting and stabbing attacks. For example, in October, Lions’ Den members shot at a taxi and bus, wounding the taxi driver and an IDF soldier; several days later, Lions’ Den members attacked a protest in Jerusalem, killing one soldier. The Lions’ Den group has received credit for approximately 100 attacks as of May 9, 2023. In addition, it has been referenced in the Palestinian pro-terrorist telegram group “Resistance News Network – Palestine” a little under 400 times, describing the group’s attacks in detail and other terrorist groups.

Israel began operation shield in Arrow on May 8th, 2023 targeting Islamic Jihad (Hezbollah) targets in Gaza in response to over 200 rockets being fired at Israel in the last few weeks. The operation has mainly been airborne, with no evidence of any ground campaign to follow, and they have already taken out three leaders of the Islamic Jihad terror group. Israel has also been performing operations in Judea and Samara (West Bank) around Nablus and Jenin targeting Lions’ Den, Al Aqsa Martyrs’ Brigades, Mujahideen Brigades, Saraya Al-Quds, and other terrorist groups. The IDF and the Palestinian Terror groups have been locked in firefights on a near-daily basis in May 2023, killing around a dozen terrorists and arresting a dozen more. The IDF has suffered wounded but no deaths from the operations inside Judea and Samara but has been dealing with random shooting attacks and ineffective IED attacks on IDF convoys.

With Israel dealing with political disputes over the judiciary and a debate over creating an Israeli constitution, the Palestinian terror groups have taken advantage of causing further chaos and were able to attack and kill multiple Israeli citizens. Meanwhile, the Palestinian Authority under President Mahmoud Abbas has been unable or unwilling to provide any security on their side if the terror group is not attacking the PA government. The Palestinian National Authority under Arafat and now Abbas have been unwilling to bring Palestinian terror groups under their control, turning a blind eye at best and forming several of the groups post-Oslo at worse. The PA has also failed economically, with an average of 25% unemployment since the beginning of the PA rule and with 85% of Palestinians making less than 1,000 USD. Meanwhile, the PA pays Palestinian families whose members were either killed or arrested monthly stipends of around 1,000 USD for each family member killed by Israeli security forces and nearly 4,000 USD for each member in an Israeli Prison, with lump sums of approximately 50,000 USD for Palestinians who kill an Israeli. These stipends, called Martyrs Fund but also called “Pay to Slay,” are mandated by Palestinian law with a minimum of 7% of the budget to go to the Martyrs Fund, which goes a minimum of 373 million USD per year as of 2021.

The PA has attempted to conceal these payments as more Western nations began cutting or pulling aid to the Palestinian Authority due to the “Pay to Slay” money transfers. With the stipends and other issues in the Palestinian Bank system, the PA is nearly insolvent, further undermining the legitimacy of the PA. The PA has also failed to provide effective local governance and infrastructure repair, giving the average Palestinian the perception of the leadership as corrupt and authoritarian. It seems clear that the PA will collapse when Mahmoud Abbas dies since there are many terrorist groups in Judea and Samara (West Bank), as well as the Gaza Strip will attempt to seize power over the Palestinian people. The collapse of the PA would be the final death knell of the Oslo Accords, which has been effectively dead since 2000. Efraim Inbar's opinion piece for the Jerusalem Times stated that the collapse of the PA could benefit Israel, with naïve Europeans and misinformed Israel-bashers being forced to face the reality of the situation where the PA and Palestinian Nationalism only destabilized the region. He also speculates that if the PA collapses, then many Palestinians in both Judea and Samara (West Bank), as well as Gaza Strip, will look to return to Egyptian and Jordanian rule, respectively.

Though Mr. Inbar’s Speculations would be beneficial, the fear is that the collapse of the PA would lead to the third Intifada if it is not already begun. The issue is that the Palestinians have long since seen that terrorism works against Israel, with the first Intifada bringing the PLO and Arafat into Israel and assuming power in Palestinian-controlled areas. The Second Intifada, which they saw, resulted in Israel abandoning the Gaza Strip. With Anarchy from a collapse in Judea and Samara (West Bank), it would force Israel to send thousands, if not tens of thousands, of IDF soldiers, into those areas, something the Israeli government has no desire to do. The Chaos from Abbas’s death and the subsequent collapse of the PA could bring forward more extreme groups or individuals being held back for monetary or other reasons to become more violent and frequent in the violence than previously. Though Abbas’s control over the Palestinian population is dubious at best, unable and unwilling to send PA security forces into terrorist strongholds seeing that Abbas’s approval ratings are in the low 20s as well as most of the security forces are themselves, members of the terrorist organizations themselves at worse and grossly incompetent at best. Israel is about to face one of the largest waves of terrorism in its entire existence, putting more strain on an already tense environment.

From 2016 to 2020, Israel and the United States made headway in the long-sought-after peace in the middle east, with Bahrain, UAE, Morocco, and Sudan all normalizing relations, with Israel joining Egypt and Jordan. It is rumored that Saudi Arabia and Indonesia will, at some point, normalize relations with Israel which has yet to happen in 2023. With the American Election of Joe Biden as president, a radical shift in American foreign policy has occurred, with Relations with Israel and Saudi becoming cold as the Biden administration antagonized the Saudis over their handling of a Muslim Brotherhood member and journalist as well as attempts to manipulate the Saudis and the production of Saudi oil. This has caused, in some people’s analysis, the driving reason Saudi has yet to sign onto the Abraham Accords. It is also speculated that it is because of the Biden Administration’s cold stance towards Saudi that China has been able to make inroads with Saudi and forced the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to enter negotiations with Iran, believing that the US won’t provide support to Saudi Arabia in the event of war between the two nations.

Israel faces Iranian-backed Hezbollah in Lebanon, Iranian and Russian Backed Syria, Iranian-backed Hamas, and an Iranian Influenced Iraq on top of Iran. Additionally, Iran has continuously issued threats and alluded to the destruction of Israel by attempting to make it seem like Israel would be the aggressor:

"We have declared, time and again, that if that entity [Israel] makes the slightest step against the Islamic Republic of Iran, our initial response would be to annihilate the Zionist entity. Iran's domestic power and its power in the region are no secret.” - Iranian President Ebrahim Raisi.

Ebrahim Raisi the newest appointed President and believes that the Holocaust isn’t real and that Israel is a fake nation that is targetting Iran because the Jews hates them instead of the position of the IRI.

"They should know for certain that the smallest mistake against the security of Iran will result in the destruction of Tel Aviv and Haifa." - Iranian President Ebrahim Raisi.

Ali Khamenei is the son of Ruhollah Khameni and is in charge of appointing the President of the IRI and holds the belief that Israel wishes to attack Iran for no other reason than a consperacy between the Jews and Americans.

"I said that they [Israel] will not get to see the next 25 years, but they seem to be in a hurry and want it to be over earlier." - Iranian Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei

The Iranian government has a desire to develop nuclear weapons and launch those nucular missles at nations they see as controlled by satan namely America and Israel.

"The might of the Iranian people has reached the point that with its missile, it can strike any target on land or in space. This missile, in particular, is one of a kind in the world and can pass any missile defense system. This is a message for the Israeli occupying regime, England, the U.S., the criminal Saud clan, and all the enemies of this [Iranian] people." - Iranian Supreme Leader Khamenei's representative Nassir Hosseini.

In Shia belief the head Imam of the Islamic faith must be related to the Prophet Muhammad and Shia believe that the last Imam related to the Prophet was a 10 year old who died when he fell down a well except the Shia do not believe the boy died. The Shia believe that the Imam just went into hiding and will come out of hiding before the end of the world to led the last war to turn the entire world Muslim. Many Shia Muslims believe destroying Israel and killing every Jew will being the end times,

"Will the annihilation of Israelis at the end of time occur before or after the appearance [of the Hidden Imam]? According to the traditions, the Iranians will annihilate Israel before the rise [of the Mahdi].” - Iranian scholar and strategist Alireza Panahian.

The cadets at face value seem to be just talk about being conquerors of Jerusalem and destroyers of Haifa but the Iranians have been stating they will destroy Israel but they are also speaking about things that have happened. Muslims have conqured Jerusalem multiple times, the first being in 637AD and destroyed Haifa during the Crusades. When they speak about the Battle of Badr it refers to one of the first battles the Prophet Muhammad led post his exile from Mecca while Battle of Hunayn was a battle against Pagan Arabs near Mecca and essentially saying they will capture many prisoners and gather a lot of loot. Though these battles were performed by Arabs not Persians, though there is a deep divide over whether Sunni Islam or Shia Islam is correct and each will claim historical muslims were Sunni or Shia.

"Each one of our roars spells death to the government of America. Death to America! We are the conquerors of Jerusalem, the destroyers of Haifa. Death to Israel! We are on our way to liberate Palestine in a war with a heathen enemy. This is like the battles of Badr and Hunayn; we are the soldiers of Hussein [bin Ali]."- cadets from the IRGC's military academy

The security that the Iranian president is alluding to is their building of nuclear weapons and claiming to be able to use their domestically made ICBMs to target Israel and America.

What should Israel and their allies do as the world enters one of the most chaotic eras in recent history? Israel should not attempt to keep the Palestinian Authority afloat and let it collapse, which will cause an uptick in violence. However, the PA has already declared it will not work with Israel in any capacity, so it would not change anything. The only real change from the collapse of the PA would free the IDF’s hand to target terrorist groups hiding inside Palestinian Authority-controlled territory and remain safe as the Israeli government cannot enter those areas due to agreements between Israel and the PA. Israel would have to call up thousands of reservists and put those troops in Judea and Samara (West Bank). At the same time, the Gaza Strip is controlled by Hamas, which barely recognizes the Palestinian Authority to begin with, which would be an issue unto itself. There would need to be some hope that a group of Palestinians in Judea and Samara (West Bank) would rise strong enough to take control of those areas but with no desire to allow others to attack and kill Jews.

This hope is more like a fever dream than any realistic view of the situation on the ground. It is more likely that the PA will collapse into smaller little city-states like ancient Greece; whoever would control the city of Nablus, Ramallah, Bethlehem, Jericho, and others would only be able to control the cities and would fight and bicker among each other instead of focusing on the killing of Jews. Next, Israel must focus on Iran. The Islamic Republic of Iran has been steadily marching towards becoming a nuclear power despite what Obama and Biden’s administrations attempted to portray when creating the ill-advised and now defunct nuclear deal with Iran. Fortunately, many Iranians dislike the Iranian government, with some polls showing that only 30% of Iranians approve of the government. What Iranians would do if an invasion occurred against the Iranian government is unknown. Still, the threat of Iran building nuclear weapons and links with multiple terror groups from Israel and worldwide would put the world at further risk. Nations worldwide have issues with Jew and Israel haters either in the halls of the nation’s government or have groups who hate Jews and Israel. Israel themselves have that issue with the Arab List political group, which actively calls for the destruction of Israel inside the Knesset itself.

People must be aware of these individuals and organizations attempting to weaken Israel, claiming that Israel and the Jews are the aggressors who used/made up the Holocaust to justify their so-called crimes. It would be best to remember that these people, deep down inside, wish to see Jews dead while Palestinian Terrorists launch around 500 rockets between May 1st, 2023, and May 10th,2023, and celebrate the potential deaths of Jews. Israel has launched several airstrikes taking out 4 Terrorist leaders and destroying over 40 rocket launchers, and yet Israel will be to blame for the violence.

As Former Prime Minister Golda Meir said, “When peace comes, we will perhaps in time be able to forgive the Arabs for killing our sons, but it will be harder for us to forgive them for having forced us to kill their sons. Peace will come when the Arabs will love their children more than they hate us.”

As Operation Shield and Arrow continues and the future of peace in the middle east looks bleak, remember that Israel is the shining beacon of freedom and liberty, only wishing to be left alone.


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